Owen Guns Bulletin May 2009 No 16
Welcome to the Sixteenth Edition of the Owen Guns Bulletin.
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HOW THE ELECTRONIC EAR MUFFS WORK
These electronic ear muffs are a high standard ear muff in design, they are made to feel light and comfortable for all day use. They can be used as standard ear muff when the electronic component is not turned on and will passively reduce noise like any normal ear muff. They have a standard noise reduction rating of 29 decibel and are a Class 5.
Once turned on the microphone, located at the top of the ear muff, will pick up and amplify ambient noise. If some one standing next to you talks, their voice will be amplified through the speakers in both ear muffs. Should there be a loud noise, such as a firearm, the electronic ear muffs will automatically cut out and block the loud noise. The electronic ear muffs are designed to attenuate noise about 85 decibels, meaning that they will block out instantly, once the noise reaches a certain level. The electronic ear muffs allow you to control the volume level of ambient noise around you. On the shooting range with constant loud reports, the electronic ear muffs will block this noise. For range instructions or to communicate with another person, you can instantly hear them speak.
At the range or anywhere ear protection is constantly required, but you also need to hear instructions from others or you wish to be more aware of the ambient sound around you, these electronic ear muffs are what you need.
Remington Genesis 1000 fps.
Idea for Dad and Son, An Adult Air Rifle. Practice Target Shooting in the Garage.
Includes a 3-9×40 Variable Air Rifle Scope and Air Rifle Mounts. $398.00
(Air Rifle Scopes have to be EXTRA shock resistant for High powered Air Rifles) . These single shot spring air Genesis pellet rifle feature ultra Hi ergonomics in its soft, synthetic pistol style grip and sculptured cheek piece, 28 pounds of cocking force gets up to 1000 fps. Other features include aTwo stage Adjustable trigger, Ventilated rubber recoil pad, Precision rifled steel barrel, Crossblock trigger blocking mechanism, Ambidextrous safety, made in the USA.
Remington 700 ADL Synthetic $980.0
The Norinco JW 105. in .223 Remington
The Norinco JW 105. in .223 Remington.
This is the (Jain Way) JW Model 105, Sometimes called Norinco. These rifles are made in the same factory that manufactures the now famous JW 15 .22 rifle (the Brno Mod One Copy) if you have had a JW15 or know of anyone who had one, you will know that they shoot sometimes better than the rifle they imitiated. These JW105 s are in .223 Remington calibre and have a five shot detachable magazine. They also come with Weaver style mount bases and Quick Detachable studs for QD sling swivels If you look carefully at the close up photograph you will notice a shiny silver colour, at the breech face,the camera has picked up the chrome plating from inside the chamber. The Chinese are the only non-military manufactures that can afford the chrome process of plating the Barrels and Chambers. They have also chromed the forward section of the Bolt. Chrome plating gives the best protection against erosion and corrosion than anything else besides regualr cleaning. The JW 105 is a copy of the Geveram that was very popular in the 1950s and 1960s, they were very good quality but I believe that Gevarm had to stop making them as the were too expensive to produce.
These are the best value .223 remington centre-fire, repeating rifle on the market.
Brand New $460
Bushnell Rifles Scopes 3–9 x 40
These Asian manufactured rifle scopes made for the big companies in the USA are improving there quality, constantly closing the gaps between them and their European competitors. The only thing that seperates most top end scopes these days is the price.
$90. plus postage.
Barsaka 3-9×50 Huntsman
The Huntmaster combines high quality optics and rugged construction with accuracy and ease of use. Huntmaster scopes feature fully-coated optics for bright clear views, rugged 1” monotube construction and are waterproof, fogproof and shockproof. Huntmasters are suitable for all types of general purpose hunting. 50 millimetre objective lens gives more vision. All for
Steyr Model 12 Semi Auto Pistol.
The Steyr Model 1912 or what is sometimes referred to as the Steyr-Hahn, (Hahn which means ‘Hammer’ so it’s the Steyr Hammer) is a famous pistol and was with the full power ammunition very powerful one for its time. The 9mm Steyr round is not the same as the 9mm para its case is longer and slightly less in diameter. At one time there was high velocity ammunition and low velocity ammunition, the low velocity being manufactured under the speed of sound for a special purpose. This famous pistol was accepted into service by the Australian Hungarian Government in 1911 and was used extensively in both World Wars. Some were apparently used with that special ammunition to take a silencer as they has a few design features which made them more suitable for that purpose than the Luger or the Walther P38.
Some books state that this was the handgun that started World War One and the sequel World War Two. (I do not believe it is possible for an inanimate object to cause anything) others say it was a Browning but as in many European languages the name for a semi auto pistol of all types is ‘Browning’ due to its popularity , and I did view a Steyr Model 12 on the wall in the Military Museum in Belgrade where it stated, it was the guilty piece that shot Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, it was mis described as a Browning. There is apparently another pistol on display in a museum in Sarajevo, and another at the Museum of Military History in Vienna but I cannot vouch for which manufacture they are or which one Gavrilo Princip actual used at the time. The Assassins were apparently given four hand guns by the Chief of Police some hours before the murders.
These pistols were adopted by the Austrain/Hungarian Empire and Rumania and by the Chilean Government. After being used by Germany and the Axis powers in WWII a large shipment was sold to France and shipped to Vietnam for use by the French Foreign Legion against the ex -OSS/CIA operative Ho Chi Minh and by that time communist supporters. The French lost and Vietnamese re blued this shipment and disposed of them in the late 1990s. Some have the threaded muzzles with a cover. All are above the legal length for pistol competition.
Loading, the loading system is different to most other handguns, when the firearm is empty, pulling the slide back by hand as far as it will go enables the magazine follower to rise in line with the breech bolt face of the slide and holds the pistol open. However it cannot be loaded in this position. The slide must be drawn further back and the thumb safety on the left side of the receiver must be turned up until it catches and locks in the hold open slot, cut for it in the left hand side of the slide. A clip with 8 rounds is then inserted in the magazine or clip guides which are machined into the top of the slide. These cartridges are then stripped down by the thumb into the magazine. If no clip is available, cartridges can be inserted singly, since they are retained in place at the top by a spring operated lip on the left side. When cartridges have been inserted and the clip removed, pressing the catch out of engagement with the slide will permit the recoil spring to drive the slide forward and the breech face will stip the top cartridge out of the magazine and chamber it. No Military collection of the 20 century is complete without one of these classic handguns but remember the ammo is hard to come by. They are in good condition, miraculous in fact when you consider they are nearly 100 years old.
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Firearm Chamber Design
Diagram 3. Designs OF CARTRIDGE CASES
A—The rimmed, bottlenecked .30/30 case. Note that a slight groove has been turned out at bottom of case body against the rim; not all batches of cases have this groove present, it may or may not be present on a certain caliber of case; it depends upon the dimensions and type of head-turning knife selected for finishing off the cases. This groove is probably an advantage on some calibers in that it permits the point of the extractor to set in further and get a better grip on the case rim for extraction. This rimmed type of cartridge positions against its rim when in the chamber of the rifle and also uses this rim for extraction purposes.
B—Another type of rimmed case, the straight-sided .45/90 case. This rimmed case does not happen to have the groove against its rim, as shown in A. It does have a bullet stop ring below the case mouth, intended to prevent the bullet from receding into the case when smokeless powder is used in charges which do not fill the case to capacity. The .45/90 case both positions and extracts by means of the rim.
C—The rimless, bottlenecked .30-06 case. When loaded into the chamber it positions against the shoulder of the case and the groove turned into the head of this case is for extraction only.
D—A belted, bottleneck case for the .275 Hoffman rifle, practically the .275 Holland and Holland case; which is the Company that invented the belted cartridge. This belted type of case positions against the forward rim of the belt when in the chamber, the groove is for extracting.
E—The rimless, straight pistol cartridge case for the .45 Colt Automatic. This is a true rimless case, with straight sides and a rim which does not protrude beyond the diameter of its body. It positions against the mouth of the case when in the pistol chamber. Such cartridges cannot be crimped over at the case mouth as they must present a square, positive edge to insure accurate positioning. The bullet is invariably seated friction tight, against a bullet stop ring, as shown above, to prevent the bullet from receding into the case. The base groove is for extraction only.
F—A semi-rimless, straight-sided case for the .401 Winchester Self Loading rifle. This looks like a rimless case but is not, its rim extends out beyond the sides of the case body; when loaded into the chamber the cartridge positions against this protruding rim, which is also used for extracting the cartridge. Manufacturer’s practice, when loading the series of cartridges for these self-loading Winchester rifles, is to load a charge of smokeless powder which fills the case, allowing no air space, and to then retain the bullet in position with a very heavy crimp; this crimp assists in the proper ignition and initial combustion of the powder charge.
Diagram 3 shows the shapes of the common varieties of cartridge cases for rifles. We will discuss first the various diameters of chambers for the corresponding diameters of cartridge, and afterwards will consider the length of the chamber for each type of case. As most of worlds available data on the manufacture of firearms containing high pressure cartridges has either been supplied by the Small Arms Text books of the British or USA governments and applies to either the .30-06 Springfield cartridge or the .303 British cartridge examples with these calibres will be predominantly shown, but as the design features of these calibers have fathered many other modern day cartridges and the principles remain the same the information is relevant to all of the hundreds of different cartridges available today.
Diagram 4.Chamber Boring and Reaming Specifications for .30-06 Cal. Model 1906 Cartridge
A—The boring dimensions and shape of chamber, before it is reamed and finished to dimensions shown on B.
B—Finished chamber for the .30-06 cartridge, with both minimum and maximum dimensions shown.
C—This drawing shows the increase in the specifications “Tolerance”, due to production difficulties experienced during WWII. This “War Tolerance” specification permitted manufacturers of .30 rifles for the U.S. Government to increase this chamber specification. The cartridge loading companies needed more tolerance in the length of the loaded round, so the bullet seat had to be increased accordingly, as is shown above. We would hope that the cartridge manufactures of the 21st Century would not need these requirements, but the firearm manufactures would have had to ‘make fit’ this tolerance so firearms could accommodate the left over stock of millions of round of ammunition (in all calibres) that were and still are being used today.
D—The .30-06 Springfield cartridge, with minimum and maximum dimensions permitted.
Diagram 4 above shows the shape and dimensions of the standard .30-06 chamber as made at USA government arsenals. This drawing is an excellent guide for the design of all other chambers for modern bolt action rifles and other cartridges, because it presents ideal dimensions and permissible variations where the cartridge used is produced in quantity, factory ammunition.
Notice that the neck of the chamber is .0008-inch larger than the neck of the maximum cartridge, thus assuring a sure fit of that occasionally very large oversize cartridge. As a matter of fact one seldom sees a maximum cartridge. (I have only ever read of their occurrence and never seen one, although they are known to occur, particularly in ammunition fabricated during the extreme production pressures during the world wars. I have had many rounds that would not fit due to reloading problems or obstructions or dirt in chambers but from the factory other problems have occurred but not over size.)
This is as much about neck diameter as can be told from that drawing, but actually we find in practice that the great majority of sporting manufactures chambers, and the great majority of cartridges, both military and sporting, generally have neck diameters that the neck of the chamber is about .0035 to .004 inch larger than the neck of the average loaded cartridge. This is good practice with .30 caliber chambers, although the clearance with those of .25 and .22 centre fire cartridges may be a trifle less, say about .0025-inch.
Normally the .308 military cartridge is loaded with a jacketed cased bullet of a diameter between .308 and .3087-inch, to which must be added the thickness of the walls of the case neck at each side to arrive at the outside diameter of the neck of the loaded cartridge. Usually case necks vary in diameter more than do bullets from any one batch. Springfield .30-06 chambers will practically always accept a cartridge which is loaded with a.311 inch lead alloy bullet without any noticeable neck friction, and it is common practice for some cast bullet enthusiasts to use lead bullets of this diameter in this caliber. Occasionally a Sporting manufacturers .30-06 chamber will be found which will not accept cartridges loaded with .311 inch bullets without squeezing effort on the bolt handle. Target chambers and all Sporting manufacturers seem to be cut just slightly smaller at the neck than Military chambers, probably because their maximum cartridge specifications are slightly smaller than Government specifications. (Military specifications will be allowing extra tolerances for dirt.
Battlefields and soldiers seem to have a relationship with the earth, mud, gravel and grit that extends over centuries. Of course when the other side is shooting at you the only safety is in that very important earth, so the soldier becomes very close to it.) If the clearance between the neck of the cartridge and chamber is too small the breech pressure will be increased, it may be difficult to load the cartridge into the chamber, and extraction of the fired case may be difficult, particularly when the barrel has become hot from rapid firing. If the clearance is too large gas will flow back around the outside of the neck of the case when the rifle is fired, the neck of the brass case may split, and the accuracy may be poor. The fired case often presents proof of proper clearance. It should be expanded to such an extent that a normal bullet. will be an easy push fit into the neck, and the outside of the case neck should be very slightly blackened by the powder gas, but this blackening should not extend more than 1/8inch back from the mouth of the case. If the blackening extends all the way down the neck to the shoulder it indicates that either the neck of the chamber is too large, or the case is abnormally thin at the neck, provided that normal diameter of bullets are used. The diameter of the chamber cannot be told from measurements of fired cases, because when fired the case does expand to fill the chamber completely, but afterwards, when the gas pressure ceases, the brass case springs back slightly. In fact it must spring back to a slightly smaller diameter than the chamber or extraction of the fired case would be extremely difficult.
The head of the max case just in front of the extracting groove is shown as measuring .4698 inch in Diagram 4, while the corresponding diameter of the chamber is .4716 inch, indicating a clearance of .0018-inch between max cartridge and chamber. The normal and usual cartridge is, of course, several thousandths smaller than the max, so that in common practice there will almost always be a clearance of about .005 to .007 inch here.
This head clearance is also very important. If it is too small then it will be difficult if not impossible to get many of the cartridges fully home in the chamber, as the breech action does not have sufficient power to swage down this thick portion of the cartridge case. There will also be difficulty in extracting the fired case, particularly in a hot barrel. If the clearance is too large a positively dangerous condition will exist. The head of the case will expand in the large chamber, the primer pocket may enlarge and result in leaking and blown out primers, and indeed the entire head of the case may fuse and rupture, blowing out and allowing intensely hot gas to escape to the rear. This gas may leak past the bolt or breech block and seriously burn the shooter’s face or eye. The case will be welded in the chamber and may require a gunsmith to extract it. Blown out primers remaining in the breech mechanism may also jam the rifle. A large amount of gas escaping in serious cases may entirely disrupt and wreck the breech mechanism, no matter what its strength, and also splinter the stock, and may seriously injure if not kill the shooter. Any or all of these troubles may occur with cartridges loaded to entirely normal pressures if the head of the chamber is too large or the head of the case too small.
Similar clearances must exist between the body of the chamber and the body of the case, about .004 inch in the .30-06 chamber, or there will be serious extraction difficulties. When the clearance is too small, very decided bright longitudinal chafe marks will be in evidence on the body of the fired case, although some correctly sized yet very roughly reamed chambers may scratch every case anyway. Of course if they are oversized they will be difficulty closing the bolt, if this occurs remove them from the chamber immediately as they could cause extreme pressure problems which would lead to huge extraction problems. The most probable cause is that the reloaded cases have not been resized or there is dirt or an obstruction in the chamber. More on Chamber design in the next edition.
Understanding Reloading Ammunition
MORE INFORMATION ON POWDER SCALES
Powder Scales are what should be truly called a ‘Set of Balances’. A good sensitive balance is an expensive piece of equipment. They were highly prized by gold miners for weighing gold dust and they are the item that the blindfolded lady called ‘Justice’ holds in her hand above the Courts Houses of the Western World and heavily weighted in the courtrooms below. They are used for weighing the most valuable commodities. Even life itself, in the ammunition reloading applying the right amount of charge or even the same amount each time is of extreme importance so learn and remember as much as you can about this procedure.
They have been around for a thousand years or more and though their has been many slight improvements in speed by ‘Dampening’ the two and frowing of the balancing with either oil or magnetism the whole principle is un changed. It is impossible to turn out a true precision instrument for weighing very small quantities, with a very fine tolerance for error, at a low price, owing to the necessity for much handwork in some important parts of its manufacture. So get the best you can afford and look after them.
There are two essentially different types of instrument used for weighing powder. One is the old fashioned (as described above) overhead-beam type of construction, better known as a “balance.” in which a beam having a fulcrum point at its centre suspends a pair of balanced pans from opposite ends of the beam and maintains a vertical pointer at its centre. This pointer indicates on a small lined off scale or “index”, as it is technically called exactly when the pans are balanced. When this occurs, the hand with the needle points at the centre or zero mark. In use, this balance has certain definite combinations of weights placed in one pan and the ingredients to be weighed inserted gradually in the other, until one balances the other with the needle resting exactly at zero.
The other more modern form is better known as “scales.” It, too, maintains a fulcrum point, but the beam serves as a pointer with some means of indicating when it is in balance on its opposite end. The materials to be weighed are inserted in some form of pan suspended at one end of the beam to balance. This type of instrument is rarely as sensitive as the true balance and usually does not cost nearly as much.
The true balance suitable for reloading not only suspends the beam on “knives” but at either end one may usually find an “upside-down” knife fitting into some form of bearing which supports the pan hangers. These knives must always register perfectly in their bearings, as any jar which would throw them off side, would give a false reading on the index. On most of the lower and medium-priced balances, these knives fit into a V-shaped bearing. In other types, they operate on “planes” or surfaces ground absolutely true and flat. These plane bearings require an additional form of guide to control the exact location of the knife on the plane. It is not necessary to describe the various methods, as these are more or less manufacturer’s ideas and one invariably works as well as another.
Looking back at the foregoing description, the handloader will readily see that the maintenance of the sensitivity of his balance depends entirely upon keeping that instrument free from oil, grease or dust, which would cause its action to become sluggish in the critical points around the knives and bearings.
Photo showing the underside of the knives, the counter – weight, and the stem of the oil paddle.
The instrument must be mounted on some solid object so that it is free from vibration and shock. At the same time the legs of the cabinet or drawer are most effectively supported if they are inserted in rubber-bottomed glass cups–similar to the old-style glass cups used beneath the legs of a stove.
If these cups are not available, suitable shock-proof leg supports can be manufactured out of small inch discs of hardwood, properly hollowed out to take the screw legs of the cabinet. To further protect the delicate knives and bearings of the scales make sure the cabinet the screw legs are adjusted to all bear evenly to eliminate all vibration. This not only minimizes vibration damage to the knives, but also makes the scales or balance more or less skid-proof. Your balance knives must be protected at all costs they are the critical point in the sensitivity of the balance. If they become dulled, and that only takes an instant with mistreatment, your balance will no longer enable you to produce the accurate loads you desire. Furthermore, the sharpening of these knives cannot be accomplished by hand; should they be accidentally dulled, the instrument should be carefully packed and returned to the manufacturer for the resharpening process. Even when the manufacturer is on the other side of the earth. Not only must these knives be absolutely sharp, they must also be perfectly true in relation to their bearings. Any attempt at handwork at home, even with the finest of stones and greatest of patience, can usually result in but one thing, total ruination of the knife, necessitating expensive replacement.
In the lower-priced instruments, knives and bearings are invariably made of steel. In the more expensive grades, knives will be of steel and bearings of agate, or both knives and bearings made of the latter material. The steel in these knives is entirely different from ordinary steels. It should be of ample hardness, heat treated to eliminate wear. Even a hundred years ago balance, knives have been made of stainless steel, a steel containing a very high percentage of chromium, vanadium, nickel and other metals. (I have noticed stainless steel knives and bearings on balances made during the 1890s and used in the Gold Rush)
If a handloader can afford a balance installed in a glass cabinet, he will in the long run be more than repaid for the added expense.
A balance costs money.
It can be ruined in a few minutes. A good balance, however, if properly cared for, is good not only for a lifetime, but for several generations.A cabinet on an instrument not only eliminates the necessity for knocking it down and packing it away each time, (into the usual cardboard box, at risk of being bent every time,) it keeps this delicate instrument free from dust, but most importantly also eliminating side drafts which in precision ammunition loading is of extreme importance. As ammunition with inconsistent constituents will be inaccurate. Inaccurate results will be uninteresting and the new reloader will lose heart and cease reloading. We do not want that to happen. If you cannot make or steal a wooden box or glass cabinet for your scales just ensure that your room is draft free or the scales will not settle and again it would be a big put off.
No balance, regardless of its initial cost, should be overloaded in weighing. Price does not increase its capacity. Since this is an instrument of precision, it must be treated with more than ordinary care. A careful workman would rebel at the thought of using a precision micrometer as a “G” clamp and thereby setting them tightly, springing them, and permanently ruining them. A reloader should also respect his powder balance. If his instrument has a capacity of 500 grains, it means very definitely that it should not carry more than 500 grains.
The natural comeback to this statement will be that no reloader will throw powder charges approximating one 500 grains. (Unless they have a fifty cal.)
True, yet your powder balance will prove of extreme value to you in weighing bullets for precision handloads, or loaded cartridges if you are looking for one whom some one ( who may remain nameless) might have forgotten to insert the powder.
Don’t ruin them keep to the maximum weight permissible on any powder balance. (Since there are 437.5 grains to one ounce avoirdupois,) it takes but three 220 grain 30-06 bullets to top the 500 grain mark by a large margin. Yet I have sometimes seen reloaders insert that many reloaded cartridges of that calibre in a pan to check the weight, looking for that powder less cartridge. This is neither proper nor wise. The overload is bound to strain the instrument, distort and bend the beam a few thousandths of an inch between the knives which protrude on either side of the beam, they are then not truly in line, they are twisted and you will never get consistant results.
Using the Balance. There are certain fundamental factor controlling the use of any balance if precision results are to be obtained. If these fundamentals are not observed religiously, your particular pet load with 37.7 grains of powder will one day read 37.0, another day 38.5, and still another day 40.0. This statement may be disputed, but it can be readily verified by any reloader who cares to conduct a series of experiments. Precision handloading means but one thing–uniformity of loading, producing uniformity of results. Without uniformity there can be no accuracy. Many careful handloaders can definitely trace the change in point of impact or change in zero of their pet loads to this lack of uniformity in setting up the powder balance to weigh the charges.
Worded differently, may we suggest that you look up any particular load using a certain combination of powders, primers, and bullets in any of the tabulated loading information in any book. Notice the difference in velocity caused by a variation in powder charge of less than one grain weight. Visualize briefly the effect on group size of such low and high-velocity loads mixed indiscriminately.
An entirely false reading can be obtained with any instrument which does not rest on a perfectly solid and level foundation. If a balance, for instance, known to be sensitive to .01 grain is not set perfectly level, particularly if it is tipped backward or forward, the operator having experience with that instrument will immediately notice a sluggishness in operation, indicating that there is some trouble with the way it is setup on its feet. It has to be as level as possible so the knives are in the centre of the ‘V’. Accordingly, he can readily locate the source of the trouble.
Recently I tested an excellent second hand low cost scale balance to check the error caused by setting it off level. The actual figures showed that in setting this instrument to throw a 10.0 grain charge with everything properly levelled, the average reading, as checked against my favourite set having a known accuracy of .001 grain, and a master set of test weights meeting showed an average weight of 10.02 grains and an extreme variation of .04 grain. This is quite good enough for most uses. The instrument was then deliberately set in an off-level position, although not conspicuously so. It was zeroed in the latter position and an effort made again to throw 10-grain charges. The average in this case ran 10.44 grains, with a maximum variation of .16 grain.
This proper zeroing of the balance is of extreme importance in loading match grade ammunition or any type of cartridge which develops in the vicinity of maximum pressures. On the end of the beams of the better grades of instruments one will find a small thumbscrew which may be used for zeroing. On the cheaper ones there will be a levelling screw on the base. The operator may not have to adjust this screw every time he assembles his balance as long as it goes back in the exact same place and condition. It is frequently necessary to make adjustments of this nature when the instrument has not been in use for some time.
Photo of the oil dampened scales set ready for work.
While it is true that the guns of modern manufacture now on the market will withstand pressures far in excess of the so called “recommended maximums,” it is extremely wise to take no chances, as maximum and over-maximum pressures can seriously damage a gun’s mechanism without actually blowing it up. It might not be the first overload that kills you it might be the ninth or tenth.Another thing which the reloader must take into consideration is the fact that if he has a balance “sensitive to a twentieth of a grain,” it does not necessarily mean that the powder charges he meters out in using this instrument will be held that close. There is always a very noticeable human error. This mechanical sensitivity means that when weights equivalent to 1/65 of a grain are added in one pan with the needle in perfect balance with the pans empty, that needle will show a very definite reaction. It may be only a sixteenth of an inch, but it can be noticed. Those large magnifying glasses on a stand are very handy for setting up overlooking the index to watch for small variations, especially when like mine, your eyes are a little over the hill .
There are many things entering into this use of a balance which must be considered. No instrument can be used with superlative accuracy if there are drafts in the room occasioned by open windows. This is particularly true of a balance unprotected by a cabinet.
That a lengthy beam is necessary for the greatest accuracy is a fallacy that has long been in vogue. That it is not true can readily be determined by a careful study of the catalogues of balance manufacturers. A quarter of a century ago a balance for truly accurate weighing was believed to require a beam at least ten inches long. Today the best of these balances have had their beams shortened to approximately six inches. Why? Simply because a short beam results in far quicker reaction to weight variations.
The most expensive scale balances are listed in the brochures of their manufacturers with a very significant item in their specifications “time of swing.” Some instruments list this as 10 seconds, 8 seconds, 12 seconds, 15 seconds, or whatever the specifications call for.
The time of swing is from the centre point to the end of the swing when pans are first released from the pan stops, and would be reasonably constant regardless of load in the pans. The number of oscillations to bring the pans to a complete stop cannot be determined until all weighing conditions are taken into consideration, such as drafts, vibrations on the table where the balance is resting, change of temperature, etc., all of which affect the number of oscillations of any balance.
Photo showing oil dampening pot and the knife bearings.
In the more expensive balances used for precision speed work, various forms of damping devices are designed to slow up these oscillations have been introduced, most of which have, of course, been patented by their designers. One very practical type uses a small metal plate suspended from the top of the bow and operating between the poles of a small magnet.
How sensitive need a powder balance be for reloading purposes? Generally speaking, a reloader should hold his charges to the maximum variation of 1/10 grain. In order to do that and still eliminate the human error, his balance should be sensitive to at least 1/65 grain. True precision results can never be obtained unless a slow system of weighing is used with a sensitive balance; the needle or pointer should always come to zero to indicate perfect balance of the charge and the weights. Contrary but correctly the slower the ‘time of swing’, a ‘slower system’ the quicker the reloader can get the result and the speedier he can get the powder into the case. So the best dampening systems oil or magnetism pays off by speeding up the process and saving the reloaders patience. A relaxed reloader is more likely to be a consistent reloader and a consistently better shot.
This human error cannot be too greatly stressed. If two expert target shots of equal ability were given two target rifles which look approximately the same, but which on actual test show tremendous differences in accuracy, the expert shot using the poor rifle will get better results than a “average” shot using the same rifle, but will never equal the results of the other expert unless he uses the more accurate rifle of the two. The same is true of a scale balance, it needs skill to operate it and the more skilled will get more out of less quality, but never as much as out of the better quality scale balance. If a balance is not sensitive to at least 1/10 of a grain, it has little if any value whatever in the reloader’s equipment. Next Edition Methods of Weighing charges.
Thought For the Week,
from ‘Those about to Die salute thee Caesar’.
The worlds media told us last week that the civilians in the USA legally purchased at least 3.7 million guns during the first 3 months of this year. They acquired that figure from the National Instant Criminal Background Check System but as many buyers would buy more than one firearm at a time, (with one background check) some four or five, the possible sales figure for the 3 month period could be over 4 million firearms in 3 months.
The media of course pointed out that the figure was more than enough to re-equip two armies and not just two any armies but the two largest armies in the world India (1 million soldiers) China (2.25 million soldiers). The American civilian sportsmen and women also purchased 1,529,635,000 rounds of ammunition in just the month of December. Yes, that is right, that is over 1.5 billion with a ‘b.’ This number takes no account of reloading components sold or reloaded ammunition. Even in this time of economic depression the shares of the US. firearm manufacturers are reaching skywards triple the price is some instances of a year ago.Of course the media did mention that before the boom 8 million guns a year were purchased and were suitable horrified by the small maths of 80 million in ten years and never even got to the meaningful figure of 800 million in a hundred years. Of course to the mainstream media this was an awful situation those civilians could kill everyone in America, if their hero President Hussain Obama Ladin did not round them all up and turn them into road fill. Only one press release I could find put any balance on the topic with a quote from Admiral Isoruko Yamamota, a World War II Commander in Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, who said, “You cannot invade the mainland United States. There would be a rifle behind every blade of grass.”
They buy guns like this all of time in the USA why are we missing out?
They are all wrong of course as for the last few weeks the USA and the rest of the world was not going to die under millions of rifles and billions of rounds of ammo delivered by right wing, bible loving red necks, instead last week our media leaders were telling us we were all going to die of the Swine flu. They were intent on giving pigs a bad name and forecasting the end of the world. Maybe its threat of flu and not the threat of Obama, that’s selling all the guns?
Flu epidemic, indeed pandemic, predicted to be even more cleansing than the killer flu of 1918, perhaps the beginning of the long expected final plague that would eliminate humanity from the earth, everyone was ready for the disaster. We all had read the papers, they must be true. Many were sure there would be piles of festering corpses in the streets, such as one would expect after a African election. I had read Defoe’s account of the bubonic plague in London, and knew that men with wheelbarrows would be collecting the dead. Especially with today’s littering laws they would not be allowed to die untidily. We had read of the lightning spread, the hundreds of dead, the frightening appearance of cases in Hong Kong, comparisons to the Black Death of 1348. One news story put the mortality from the Monster Flu at ten percent. If this flu business isn’t just a media frenzy staged by bored news weasels, why has it disappeared from our television screens, where are the heaps of bodies?
Many years ago newspapers reported what happened, they reported what important people said and did and who lived and who died, these days they manufacture stories, such as ‘Those who are about to die from Excess Guns or Flu’, just because the media says so. They even have Televisions shows which report on, ‘What the Papers Say,’ and ‘Media Watch.’ As the roles have been reversed and those who control the media generate the politicians decisions as they form the peoples opinions and tell them what they should be thinking about and doing. Of course anyone that disagrees with their philosophies or their deductions are ‘politically incorrect’ and lower life forms. I have been one of these for many years, well and truly branded and if they had a leaper colony or somewhere worse, Australia’s news hounds would all dig deep into their pockets to pay for my incarceration.
All sporting shooters in Australia are considered by the Media as the enemy the ‘politically incorrect, and even though the Media might not cough up there own beer money, they would not mind watching the government cart us all off to the Gulag. Yet Australia’s largest Shooters Magazine a publication owned by Australia’ s largest shooters club treats its own readers in the same way. It will not take adverts or articles or comment from the ‘Politically Incorrect’, and instead supports importers and wholesalers whose biggest customer is the Police Forces of Australia. (many of them are good blokes, but their leaders are committed to reduce Australian firearm ownership to themselves)
Media would call this just another Massacre gun as its also on the statistics.
Its largest advertiser make no secret that they wish to have only one large dealer in each state capital and the smaller country dealers are superfluous to their future requirements. They want seven customers, cheaper and easier to manage, no competition problems, no choice. At present one or two dealers in some of the main Cities are fighting it out, like dangling or strangling dancing puppets. The games almost over in Northern Territory, Tasmania, Western Australia and NSW. Yes there are many gunsmiths and small dealers but even if they still have an account with the big Importer, they will pay more than what that large city dealer is retailing it for. Without your local gunshop available for all that free advice, on how to keep your licence, or what to do when it won’t work, those hubs of shooting clubs and associations, the firearm brokerage for private sale when they are gone so will the sporting shooters. With no competition, like the Dodo we will be extinct and ‘those about to die’ will not be shot by the American shooters or die of the flying Pandemic Pig flu. Those high flying Importer/Wholesalers will have done the job for the Anti- gun nuts, not realising that it is themselves that have killed the Goose that laid the golden egg. That they, including the Shooting Association will eventually have to leap onto the funeral pyre of their own manufacture. Ron Owen
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